Daniel 11:2 Index
"And now will I shew thee the truth. Behold, there shall stand up yet three kings in Persia; and the fourth shall be far richer than they all: and by his strength through his riches he shall stir up all against the realm of Grecia."
Research Material

"...I shew thee the truth..."

  • The substance of the fourth great revelation in Daniel begins with this verse. All that precedes, from Daniel 10:1 to Daniel 11:1, is background and introduction. (4BC 864)

"...three kings in Persia; and the fourth..."

  • The four kings that followed Darius were Cambyses, Gaumata, Darius I and Xerses, also known as Ahasuerus, of the book of Esther. Ahasuerus was proud of his wealth and position, and attacked the Greek city-state. They united and saved their freedom. (KC 123)
  • Inasmuch this vision was given to Daniel in the third year of Cyrus (Daniel 10:1), the reference is doubtless to the three kings who followed Cyrus on the throne of Persia. These were: Cambyses (530-522 B.C.), the False Smerdis (a usurper 522 B.C.) and Darius I (522-486 B.C.).... Commentators generally agree that the context points to Xeres as "the fourth" king (486-465 B.C.). (4BC 864)

"...the fourth shall be far richer than they all..."

  • Xeres is to be identified with the Ahasuerus of the book of Esther (Esther 1:1). Of him it is recorded that he was particularly proud of "the riches of his glorious kingdom" (Esther 1:4, 6, 7). Herodotus, who wrote at length of Xeres, leaves a vivid, detailed account of his military might (vii. 20, 21, 40, 41, 61-80). (4BC 864)

"...he shall stir up all against..."

  • Xeres would stir up the nations of the world against Greece... is a well-known fact of history. By the time of Xeres, the Greek peninsula remained the only important area in the eastern Mediterranean not under Persian domination. In 490 B.C., Darius the Great, predecessor of Xerxes, while attempting to subdue the Greeks, had been stopped at Marathon. With the accession of Xerxes, new plans on a lavish scale were laid for the conquest of Greece. Herodotus (vii. 61-80) enumerates over 40 nations that furnished troops for Xerxes' army. Included in the vast army were soldiers from such widely separated lands as India, Ethiopia, Arabia, and Armenia. Even the Carthaginians seem to have been induced to join in the assault by attacking the Greek colony of Syracuse in Sicily. (4BC 864-865)
  • By 480 B.C., the Greeks had the vast Persian Empire in arms against them. The Greek city-states, so often at war with one another, rallied to save their freedom. At first they suffered a series of setbacks. They were defeated at Thermopylae, and Athens was taken and partially burned by the Persians [in both instances the Persians we denied a military victory]. Then the tide turned. The Greek navy, under Themistocles, found itself bottled up by superior Persian squadrons in the Bay of Salamis, on the coast of Attica not far from Athens. Soon after battle was joined it became evident that the Persian ships were in too tight [a] formation for effective maneuvering. Under persistent Greek onslaughts many were sunk, and only a fraction of the navy escaped. With this Greek victory the Persian sea forces were eliminated from the struggle for Greece. The following year, 479 B.C., the Greeks decisively defeated the troops of Persia at Plataea and drove them from ever from Greek soil. (4BC 865)